Goran tek-en, via Wikimedia Commons
The Sumer populated Mesopatamia, between the Euphrates and the Tigris, with small towns and villages and with the use of irrigation were the first known people to start farming.
Image courtesy of David Stanley, via Wikimedia Commons
It is not known where the first Sumarians came from, however legend has it that they walked out of the sea. Which is why Southern Mesopatania flourished under their rule.
Image courtesy of Paul Hudson, via Wikimedia Commons
The Sumerians introduced the first known written lanaguage, now referred to as cuneiform. This was presumably introduced for trade purposes and in 3,200 BC started using the wheel, presumably for the same purpose. Mathematics followed around 3,000 BC, with a base 60 system, still used today.
image courtesy of Zunkir, via Wikimedia Commons
The Southern cities of Eridu, Nippur, Lagash, Uruk, Kish and Ur grew and Etana of Kish was the first to unify them into an empire.
Royal Museums of Art and History, via Wikimedia Commons
Gilgamesh took his reign from Lugalbanda and became notorious, with legends being written about him. For a long while there was a theory that Gilgamesh didn't exist, however, after the US toppled Saddam in Iraq, Gilgamesh tomb was found and it is said that the US took all evidence of it's existance away with them.
Image courtesy of Erinthecute, via Wikimedia Commons
King Lugalzagesi, of Umma fell to the Akkadian leader Sargon of Akkad. It was during that Akkadian's reign that the 4.2 kiloyear event occurred, which causeed the land of Mesopotamia to dry up.
image courtesy of Fulvio314, via Wikimedia Commons
After the decline of the Akkadians, the nomadic Gutti saw there chance to take control and took Akkad burning it. The Guttians survived the unrest for the next century.
image curtosy of Hardnfast, via Wikimedia Commons
Ur-Namma, from the city of Ur brought the Sumerians back to power after Ytu-hengal defeated the Gutians. Ur-Namma became laws were written and currency was made. However, after Ur-Namma's death, the Martu, Elamites and Amorites started raiding cities.