the hittites

2,000 BC
Anatolia Plateau
Anatolia Plateau

Spiridon Ion Cepleanu, CC BY-SA 3.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons

(Middle Bronze Age) Settlements in the Anatolia plateau start to form.

1,850 BC
Anatolia Plateau

Pitkhana, the king of Kussara and conquered the wealthy city of Kanesh

1,770 BC
Anatolia Plateau

Anitta, son of Pitkana, ruled, making his capital Kanesh and went to war with Hattusa (siege which caused many to starve) and Zalpa. He then gained riches by conquering Salatiwara, following that Purushanda conceded without a battle and the city was spared. In 1740 Anitta died and his kingdom died with him.

1,650 BC
Hittite Kingdom
Hattusili I

Hattusili I (founder of the Hittite older kingdom) took Hattusa as his capital and around 1640, Hattusa was rebuilt and he conquered cities such as Kanesh, Purushanda and Tuwanuwa. He then marched into Yamhad ruled by the Amorites and conquered Alalakha. He then returned as his kingdom was under attack from the Arzawas and after defeating the Arzawas, Hattusili I died leaving his kingdom to Mursili.

1,620 BC
Hittite Kingdom
Murshili I

Murshili I, Hattusili’s grandson took over as King of the Hittites. Mursili continued his grandfather’s attack on Yamhad. In 1595 Murshilli finally destroyed the Yamhad capital Halab (or Aleppo). Hearing that Babylon had weakened, he continued on into Mesopotamia and captured Babylon, ending the Amorite dynasty. In 1590 BC Murshili I returned to Anatolia, the Hittite capital, where he was assassinated by his own family. His brother-in-law, Khantili I who was married to Murshili’s sister Harapsili , succeeded him. However, due to the assasination family feuds broke out bringing the Hittite Empire into turmoil.

1,525 BC
Hittite Kingdom

Telipinu came to the throne and built alliances with those around the dwindling Hittite empire. However, the rulers that followed accomplished very little.

1,450 BC
Hittite Kingdom
Tudhaliya I

Around 1450 BC, Tudhaliya I came to the throne. The Mittani had risen and conquered Hittite allies to the south-east. Tudhaliya, fearing attack, prepared his troops. Instead, the Arzawa attacked and were repelled. With Tudhaliya’s reputation high, the Egyptian pharaoh, Ahmose I, engaged in an alliship with the Hittites. Tudhaliya then raided Halab (Aleppo) without a fight. He then attacked the Mittani and was successful in war but unable to destroy the Mittani. Then Tudhaliya died.

1,420 BC
Hittite Kingdom
Arnuwanda I

Arnuwanda I took power. The Kashka attacked from the North and the Mittani attacked from the South-East. This again started the demise of the empire, eventually, with the Arzawa attacking again, Hattusa was sacked by the Kashka during Tudhaliya II rule.

1,350 BC
Hittite Kingdom
Suppiluliuma I

With the Hittites no longer deemed to have any power, however Tudhaliya II’s son Suppiluliuma I was hiding out waiting for the right time to strike and eventually invaded Kashka land and won. He went on to regain most of the land lost, defeating the Arzawa and then the Mittani sacking their capital Washukanni.

Click here for Mittani Timeline

1,323 BC
Hittite Kingdom
Message from Egypt

After Tutankhamun died and his wife Ankhesenamon sent a letter to Suppiluliuma asking for him to send one of his sons to marry her, as there was no heir to Tutankhamun's throne and she didn’t wish to marry the politician Ay. On the way to Egypt his son died.

1,322 BC
Canaan Battleground

The Hittites and the Egyptians met in Canaan to battle and the Hittites won, leading with many prisoners. These prisoners brought back a plague which killed Suppiluliuma.

1,274 BC
Battle of Kadesh

Around 1274 the Hittite ruler Muwattali II met Rameses II on the battlefield on the most Southern border in what is known as the Battle of Kadesh, which neither won, however, Rameses II was forced to withdraw. While the battle was going on, the Assyrians advanced to the Hittite border in Mittani land.

1,272 BC
Murshili III

Murshili III reigned, however, Hattusili III, who governed the Hittite area of Kashka, wanted to reign and deposed Murshili III. Murshili III ruled well, making alliances and strategic moves.

1,260 BC
Hattusili III

Murshili III reigned, however, Hattusili III, who governed the Hittite area of Kashka, wanted to reign and deposed Murshili III. Murshili III ruled well, making alliances and strategic moves.

1,237 BC
Tudhaliya IV

Tudhaliya IV reigned, he tried to keep peace with the Egyptians and the Assyrians, but failed and the Assyrians advanced into the Hittite territory of Mittani. In Kashka, Karunta decided to battle for the rule of the Hittites and sacked Hattusa. Tudhaliya then defeated Karunta, but the Hittites were weakened. Tudhaliya did manage to expand by taking Cyprus.

1,207 BC
Suppiluliuma II

Suppiluliuma II took the throne, but with battles all around him and a heat wave which caused his crops to fail, people known as the sea people migrated through from Europe causing chaos with a lack of civility. Famine spread across the lands and most civilisations collapsed.

1,190 BC
The Hittite Demise

The Kashka took their opportunity and attacked Hattusa and sacked it ending the Hittite Empire.

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