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Elam was located East of mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf. It had an ever changing border of lands. The people there were not united, although shared lanaguage and trade. This was referred to as the Proto Elamite Period.
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Not much is known of the Elamites during this period apart from text from Mesopotamia. We do know that the main cities were Awan, Anshan and Susa.
It is written that the king of Marhashi brought together the Elamites, Kupin, Zahara and Meluhha to attack the Akkadians, he met Rimush, Sargon's son, who defeated them and then invaded Elam destroying their armies.
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When Naram-Sin of the Akkadians came into power he brokered a treaty with Hita of Awan, which allowed him tribute and obligatory service in his army.
Puzur-Inshushinak was a prominent ruler, known as the last of the Awan dynasty. He launched a campaign North and into Mesopotamia building an empire. He is also known to have started the first Elamite written language. Puzar-Inshushinak died early along with his campaign allowing Ur Nammu to regain control of Mesopotamia for the Sumarians.
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With the Sumerians, under Shulgi, in power in Mesopotamia, Ancham rebelled, but was put down. Shulghi, then transfered power to King Eborat of Shimashki and married his daughter to him to elicit compliancy.
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With Sumerian rule diminishing with raids throughout Mesopotamia, the Elamites, under Skimashki joined the fight with the Martu, the Elamites and the Amorites defeated Ibbi-Sin at the city of Ur, ending the Sumerian Empire.
Click here for the Summarian timeline
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The Shukkulmah dynasty continued, with the Elamite being revered by the Babylonian power and being known as arbitrators of Mesopotamia. Then ending in 1,500 BC for unknown reasons.
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The middle Elamite Period started with the Kidinuids Dynasty founded by King Kidinu and ended with Temti-Amar. Little is known of this dynasty other than at some point Temti-Amar expelled the Kassite king Kashdashman-Enlil I.
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The Igi-halkids followed the Kidinuids. They were known for their buiding and art work, which included one of the biggest Ziggurats built. They also enjoyed a special relationship with the Kassite Babylonians.
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With the Assyrians taking control of Babylon from the Kassites and putting Enlil-Nadim-Sumi to rule. Elam King Kidin-Hutran attacked East Mesopotamia taking Der and Nipper, defeating Enlil-Nadim-Sumi and seeing Kassite Adad-Shuma-Usar take control of Babylon. After turmoil in Elam, Kidin-Hutran was assasinated in 1208 BC
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In 1158 the Assyrians attacked the Kassite Babylonians, under Ashur-Dan I. Babylonia fought for three years and when the Assyrians retreated, Elam under Ahuthuk-Nahhunte raided Babylonia, ending Kassite rule and capturing Enlil-Adin-Ahi and taking him back to Elam along with a famous Babylonian statue.
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Nebachadnezzar I of babylon, launched a campaign against the Assyrians and after brokering a peace, he then campaigned against Elam and clashed against Hulteudish-Inshushinak, plundering Susa and returning the idols taken in 1155 BC back to Babylon.
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Little is known about the beginning of the Neo Elamite Period until 720 BC, when Babylonian rebel campaigned against the Assyrians, the Elamites, under Humban-Nikash I joined the battle against Tiglath-Pileser and then Sargon II. Itially, they gained victory over the Assyrians, but under Sargon II. After Humban-Nikash I death, Shutruk-Nahhunte II avoided conflict and support of the Babylonians until he was forced into battle with Sargon II after getting involved in a diplomatic battle in Ellipi.
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- When Babylonian Marduk-apla-iddina joined with the Chaldeans and the Aramaean tribes to battle the Assyrians under Sennacherib, Shutruk-Nahhunte II of Elam joined them. The Elamites did most of the fighting but were defeated by Sennacherib. Elam Hallushu then battled Sennacherib and lost and on return to Elam was assassinated.
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After Urtek was conned into breaking a peace treaty with the Assyrians and Urtak and then Te Umman were both massacred by Ashurbanipal, Elam became a client state of Assyria. When the Elamites fought with Asurbanipal's brother against the Assyrian conquerer they were again defeated. This time Asurbanipal destroyed Elam. Elam went into poverty and chaos and King Humban-haltash III went into hiding.