3,000 to 1,000 BC

5,000 BC
Sumerians Mesopatamia
Goran tek-en, via Wikimedia Commons

The Sumer were the rulers of  Mesopatamia turning into the world's first civilisation, which is based in modern day Iraq, Kuwait and Syria.

Click for the Sumerian Timeline

3,500 BC
Image courtesy of David Stanley, via Wikimedia Commons

Ur became the most powerful Sumarians city, with it's dominant position on the coast, it was able to farm well and trade with the Egptians and the Indus Valley.

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3,300 BC
Indus Valley
Early Harappan Phase
Image courtesy of Avantiputra7, via Wikimedia Commons

Where India, Pakistan and Afghanistan now sit, the early Harappan phase of the Indus Valley ran from 3,300 to 2,900 BC

3,100 BC
Ancient Egypt
1st Dynasty - Narmer

Keith Schengili-Roberts, via Wikimedia Commons

The 1st Dynasty started in 3,100 BC with Narmer taking the double crown to become Egypt's first Pharaoh. 

3,000 BC
Ancient Nubia
Qustul & Ballana

Daderot, via Wikimedia Commons

An excavation performed by the University of Chicago on two burial tombs in Qustul and Ballana suggest that the Nubians were thriving around the same time as the Egyptians. The picture of the above bowl from the Qustul tomb is dated from 3,800 to 3,000 BC.  

3,000 BC
Ancient China
Silk Trade
image courtesy of, Wikimedia Commons

China, between the Yellow river and theYangtze river was flourishing and small cities were building up. China biggest export was from the silk trade which started around 3,000 BC.

2890 BC
Ancient Egypt
2nd/3rd Dynasty
Jorge Láscar, via Wikimedia Commons

The 2nd Dynasty with Pharaohs from Hotepsekhemwy to Khasekhemwy rand from 2890BC to 2686BC

The 3rd Dynasty contained the first step pyramid, in Saqqara, for Djoser, which is 6 levels high.

The Dynasty started with Djoser or Nebica and completed with Huni.

Ancient Egypt
4th Dynasty

The 4th Dynasty is one of the most infamous, with the three pyramids, including Khufu's Great Pyamid of Giza, and the sphinx being built.

The 4th Dynasty ended with Shepseskaf.

2,600 BC
Indus Valley
Mature Harappan Phase
Image courtesy of Saqib, via Wikimedia Commons

Hundreds of cities and settlements spread across the indus valley, with Mohenjo-daro, in modern day Pakistan it's biggest. Some cities massed as much as 20,000 populationand in Mohenjo-daro they were pioneering engineering.

2,575 BC
Ancient Nubia
Kushite Beginning

Mike Knell, via Wikimedia Commons

With the Kushite script yet to be understood, most information about them come from the Ancient Egyptians. The Egyptian Pharoah Snefru raided Nubia during his reign, bringing back slaves who would later merge into Engyptian society. It is believeed that shortly afterwards Nubia split and the Kush were formed. 

2494 BC
Ancient Egypt
5th/6th Dynasty
UnknownRama, via Wikimedia Commons

The 5th Dynasty, from 2494BC to 2323BC started with Userkaf and completed with Unas.

The 6th Dynasty started with Teti I and ended with Merenre II. It most notibly included Pepi II who was the longest serving Pharaoh, ruling from the age of 6 years old for over 90 years.

War in Southern Mesopotamia
Image courtesy of Erinthecute, via Wikimedia Commons

King Lugalzagesi fell to the Akkadian leader Saragon the Great. It was during the Akkadian reign that the 4.2 kiloyear event occurred bringing forth drought.

Click here for the Akkadian Timeline 

2,150 BC
image courtesy of Fulvio314, via Wikimedia Commons

After the decline of the Akkadians, the nomadic Gutti saw there chance to take control and took Akkad burning it. 

Click here for the Gutti Timeline

2150 BC
Ancient Egypt
7th/8th Dynasties
Metropolitan Museum of Art, via Wikimedia Commons

After the reign of Pepi II, Egypt declined in leadership and went into poverty. As such not much is known about the 7th and 8th Dynasties, which lasted around 20 years and had over 20 rulers.

2,175 BC
Ancient Egypt
9th/10th Dynasties
Metropolitan Museum of Art, via Wikimedia Commons

Even less is known about the 9th and 10th Dynasties. However, what is known was that the rulers were based in Heracleoplois and were ruthless 

2,134 BC
Ancient Egypt
11th Dynasty
Metropolitan Museum, via Wikimedia Commons

Antef I set in motion the reuniting of Egypt, which was finally achieved by  Mentuhotep II of Memphis. The dynasty ended with Mentuhotep IV.

2,004 BC
Elamites & Amorites
Delaporte, via Wikimedia Commonsedia Commons

The Elamites and the Amorites defeated Ibbi-Sin, ending the Sumerian Empire.

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2,000 BC
Monoan Civilisation
Nina M. Davies, via Wikimedia Commons

Minoans arrived at Crete around 2,600 BC and by 2,000 BC they had built a civilistaion.

1,991 BC
Ancient Egypt
12th Dynasty
Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin, via Wikimedia Commons

During the 12th Dynasty the God Anun grew in importance, ruled over North Nubia and ended with Nefrusobek, daughter of Amenemhat III, in power.

1,900 BC
Indus Valley
Late Harappan Phase
image courtesy of Merikanto, via Wikimedia Commons

This is the period of decline in the Indus Valley, with the reduction of trade, climate changes that may have caused droughts. Slowely the Haprappen people left.

1,792 BC
Image courtesy of William Simpson, via Wikimedia Commons

Hammurabi took control over a turbulent part of Mesopotamian history and named his capital Babylon.

Babylon was ruled by different empires, but stood for a long time.

1,783 BC
Ancient Egypt
13th/14th Dynasty
Juan R. Lazaro, via Wikimedia Commons

There were numerous rulers of the 13th Dynasty, however lower Egypt, including the Nile Delta was run by different rulers, splitting Egypt. Lower Egypt formed the 14th Dynasty, which started prior to the end of the 12th Dynasty and ran parallel with the 13th. 

1,650 BC
Kingdom of Kush
Egypt Invasion

Rufus46, via Wikimedia Commons

Battles between the Kush and Egypt were common. Around 1,025 BC Egyptian Pharoah Sesostris I invaded Kush and even after Egypt had fortified the border, the warring archers of the Kush invaded Egypt to the South (Africa was deemed North in those days) around the same time the Hyksos were marching North.

1,510 BC
Kingdom of Kush
Conquest of Karmah

Lassi, via Wikimedia Commons

With the rise of the Thebans, Ahmose I invaded Kush and used a viceroy to rule over it. Children were brought to Egypt to serve in Ahmose army, as well as the Nubian's sought after gold. The Egyptians are said to have ruled the Kush until around 800 Bc.

1,640 BC
Ancient Egypt
15th/16th Dynasty
Macquarie University, Wikimedia Commons

The 15th Dynasty saw the Hykos invade and conquer firstly lower and then upper Egypt. The South , left devestated was taken over by two seperate Dynasties in the South. The Abydos Dynasty would only last 20 years, before the Hykos returned and over threw them. However, the Thebans (16th Dynasty) held firm in war, but was finally defeated by the Hykos.

image courtesy of Sémhurderivative , via Wikimedia Commons

The Hittites, under the rule of Mursili I, conquered Yamhad and trevelled into Mesopotamia and destroyed the Babylonians.

1,571 BC
Ancient Egypt
17th Dynasty
Khruner, via Wikimedia Commons

The Thebans continued to survive and gained independance, securing the land to the North, thus creating the 17th Dynasty. However the peace with the Hyksos lasted around thirty years and then war started up again.

1,550 BC
Ancient Egypt
18th Dynasty
Roland Unger, via Wikimedia Commons

Ahmose I defeats and pushes back the Hyksos. But Ahmose isn't the leader that would mostly be remembered, as Queen Hatshepsut was Pharoah, Thutmose III is renowned as the greatest military Pharoah, later there was Akhenaten, who believed in the one God and of most notibly Tutankhamun. This Dynasty was most famous for the conquest of Kush.

1,400 BC
Maribel Ponce Ixba, via Wikimedia Commons

Little is known about the Olmecs, yet around 1,400 BC the Olmecs created probably the first known civilisation in the Americas, which is believed to have lasted around a thousand years. Without enough archeological finds we have yet to decipher a language that can be used to piece together their history.

1,360 BC
Assyrian Empire
image courtesy of Empire neo assyrien, via Wikimedia Commons

Assyrians rose to power again and would go on to captured Babylon under the reign of King Sargon II

1,292 BC
Ancient Egypt
19th Dynasty
Hajor, via Wikimedia Commons

During the 19th Dynasty we see Pharoahs such as Seti I and Ramesses II battling the Libyans and the Hittites, after which there was a decline as three Pharoahs ruled in fifteen years. The Dynasty ended with Twosret being ousted by Setnakhte.

1,189 BC
Ancient Egypt
20th Dynasty
Esimpson2, via Wikimedia Commonss

With Queen Twosret death, Egypt went into turmoil, but Setnakhte brought calm. There were many Ramesses rulers that followed, but none of any prominance and the Dynasty ended with drought and famine.

1,189 BC
Ancient Egypt
21st Dynasty
English Wikipedia, via Wikimedia Commons

The Egyptian Empire went into slow decline throughout this Dynasty, with High Priests taking control of most of the land.

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