the Assyrians

2,500 BC
The Beginning
Свифт/Svift, via Wikimedia Commons

From 2500 the Assyrians three main cities Abal, Nineveh and the capital Ashur (Western bank of Tigris river), would be built to start the Assyrian Empire.

2,050 BC
Uspija, last King in tents
SapraAshuraya,via Wikimedia Commons

Uspija (Last King in tent - taken from the King list) city of Ashur formed for Assyrians, his son Apiasal was the first King to live in the city. 

2,025 BC
Assyrian Dynasty
Metropolitan Museum of Art, via Wikimedia Commons

It is said that Puzur-Ashur I founded the Assyrian dynasty. However little is known until Shamshi-Adad I (1809-1776 BC), an Amorite, came to power. Trade was prominent throughout the Akkadian empire and beyond.

1,809 BC
Shamshi-Adad I
Attar-Aram syria, via Wikimedia Commons

Shamshi-Adad I ruled Ekallatum from 1833, after not inheriting the throne of Assyria from his father. Naram-Sin of Eshnunna attacked Ekallatum and Shamshi-Adad was forced into exile. When he returned he conquered Ekallatum and then went on to conquer Ashur. He then conquered the areas around Assyria for the Assyrians and pronounced the capital as Subut-Enlil. King of Mari enters a long war with Shamshi-Adad and loses. Shamshi-Adad proclaims himself “King of all”

1,776 BC
Attar-Aram syria, via Wikimedia Commons

Iame-Dagan rules after his fathers death, but loses most of the territory gained by Shamshi-Adad, leaving the Assyrians with the three main cities of Abal, Nineveh and Ashur.

1,430 BC
Ashur Sacked
Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Hurrian King of the Mitanni Saushtatar sacked Ashur and turned it into a vassal state to Saushtatar.

1,400 BC
Assyrian Independence
Alexikoua, via Wikimedia Commons

It is believed, by 1400, Assyria had regained independence and had gained a structured border with Babylonia. It is believed that after the Hittites sacked Mitanni and left, the Assyrian took control of some of their lands.

Click here for Hittite timeline

1,365 BC
Middle Empire
Gary Todd, via Wikimedia Commons

Ashur-Uballit, with control of the lands, previously owned by the Mitanni empire, started correspondence with Egypt.

1,333 BC
Middle Empire
Ashur-Uballit's revenge
Gary Todd, via Wikimedia Commons

Ashur-Uballit, King of Assyria, attacked and defeated the Kassites in Babylon, after a people’s revolt that deposed and killed the reigning King of Babylon Kara-Hardash and his wife, who was Ashur-Uballit’s daughter. He sacked the city, killed King Nazi-Bugash and put Kurigalzu in power.

1,329 BC
Middle Empire
War with Babylon
Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin, via Wikimedia Commons

Ashur-Uballit died and so started war and conflict between Babylon and Assyria, with neither gaining ground.

1,243 BC
Middle Empire
Tukulti-Ninurta I
Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin, via Wikimedia Commons

Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I, battles with the Hittites and then heads South to attack the Kassite Babylonians and sacked Babylon and their holy cities. Tukulti-Ninurta was assassinated by his own people, who believed the Gods had turned on him for the sacking of the holy cities.

1,208 BC
Middle Empire
Assyria Declines
Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin, via Wikimedia Commons

With Tukulti-Ninurta dead, Assyria fell into decline with the Kings that followed.

1,114 BC
Middle Empire
Tiglath-Pileser I
Lehmann-Haupt, Carl Friedrich, via Wikimedia Commons

The reign of Tiglath-Pileser I, brought back the Assyrian strength as they conquered and expanded North and West, beyond anywhere they had previously been.

934 BC
Neo Empire
Ashur-Dan II
Jolle, via Wikimedia Commons

Ashur-Dan II came to power and started attacking to the North, regaining control of territories they had once held and to the West attacking the Aramaeans, rebuilding wherever he gained control, whilst building a larger army with the conquered.

883 BC
Neo Empire
Mary Harrsch, via Wikimedia Commons

Adad-Narari II, Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III continued the fight against the Aramaeans and also battled against the Babylonians in the south. Ashurnasirpal II also built the major city of Kalhu.

853 BC
Neo Empire
Battle of Qarqar
Gary Todd, via Wikimedia Commons

During Shalmaneser III reign, eleven kings banded together to stop the expansion of the Assyrian empire. The battle is known as the Battle of Qarqar. Many of those who opposed Shalmaneser III ended up having to pay tribute to the Assyrians. With expansion and ruling over the huge area, individuals started to gain power and squabbles turned to battles, including that of Shalmaneser’s sons.

823 BC
Neo Empire
Shamshi-Adad V
David Castor, via Wikimedia Commons

Shamshi-Adad V, one of Shalmaneser’s sons involved in the squabble, gained power. Expansion stopped and the King became a symbol without power over the Assyrian domain, which was split into different areas, ruled by different people.

745 BC
Neo Empire
Tiglath-Pileser III
Allan Gluck, via Wikimedia Commons

Tiglath-Pileser III changed things and started to rule the whole of the Assyrian kingdom, he also went to war with anyone who opposed his rule.

721 BC
Neo Empire
Sargon II
Allan Gluck, via Wikimedia Commons

Sargon II started expansion again, attacking and defeating the Urartu to the North-East. Then he headed North capturing Tabal When the Elamites attacked Babylon, but were forced to retreat and garnish a treaty with Sargon II. Sargon II was later killed in battles, attempting to subdue an uprising.

704 BC
Neo Empire
Gary Todd, via Wikimedia Commons

Sennacherib, son of Sargon II, he moved the capital to Nineveh. The Babylonian Marduk-apla-iddina joined with the Chaldeans, the Elamites and the Aramaean tribes to battle the Assyrians under Sennacherib. The Elamites did most of the fighting but were defeated by Sennacherib. Elam Hallushu then battled Sennacherib and lost and on return to Elam was assassinated. 

701 BC
Neo Empire
Kingdom of Judea
Unknown author, via Wikimedia Commons

Sennacherib attacked the Kingdom of Judea and besieged Jerusalem. He is said, according to the Bible, as needing to retreat because of an angel. Historically, he returned to Babylon, to defeat Marduk-apla-iddina again, as he had returned to take Babylon. When Sennacherib attempted to attack Elam via the South, Babylon was taken by the Elamites, as a result Sennacherib returned and destroyed Babylon.

680 BC
Neo Empire
Maur, via Wikimedia Commons

Sennacherib was assassinated and his son Esarhaddon marched in Ninevah and defeated those who committed the deed. Esarhaddon rebuilt the empire, including Babylon, he then went on to expand the empire again, including Southern Egypt’s (Northern Egypt as it is now) Memphis.

668 BC
Neo Empire
Allan Gluck, via Wikimedia Commons

Ashurbanipal and Shamash-shumu-ukin, Esarhaddon’s sons, became Kings of Assyria and Babylon respectively. War between the two brothers in Assyria and Babylon started up again, with the Elamites supporting Shamash-shum-ukin. Ashurpanipal destroyed his brothers armies and continued on to march into Elam and destroyed it.

630 BC
Neo Empire
End of the Empire
Gary Todd, via Wikimedia Commons

Ashurpanipal died in 631 and the following Kings lasted for short and disruptive periods of time. Nabopolassar and the Medes, under Cyaxares, took advantage and started pushing into Assyrian lands, the latter reaching and destroying Ashur. Naboplassar and Cyaxares then sacked Nineveh.

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